The Thermal Integrity Profiler (TIP) uses the heat generated by curing cement to assess the quality of drilled shafts
and of bored, augered cast in place, continuous flight auger or drilled displacement piles. It may also be used for
quality control and shape evaluation of jet grouting, slurry walls and diaphragm walls. TIP evaluates the entire
cross-section and the entire length of the foundation. Results are available shortly after shaft installation is
concluded: TIP reveals necks or inclusions (regions that are colder than average), bulges (regions that are warmer
than average), variations in concrete cover, shape of the shaft and cage alignment.
The average temperature within a concrete shaft is dependent on its diameter, on the concrete mix design and on
the time of measurement relative to concrete casting. Measured temperatures at the reinforcement cage vary
with the distance to the center of the shaft and with the concrete cover.
TIP is available in two models: with Thermal Wire®1 brand cables or with Probes 2.
The TIP THERMAL WIRE Model includes a starter set of THERMAL WIRE cables (copper cables fitted with uniformly
spaced temperature sensors), and Thermal Acquisition Ports that transfer collected data to the TIP main unit. The
cables are cast into the shaft (often tied to the rebar cage). An additional short THERMAL WIRE cable may be
installed parallel to one of the main cables to help, refine the estimate of the concrete cover.
The TIP Probe Model includes a thermal probe (with 4 orthogonal temperature sensors) that is inserted into access
tubes for data collection, and a Thermal Acquisition Port that transfers collected data to the TIP main unit. Shafts
must be built with access tubes to be tested with this system.
Data collected by either TIP system is downloaded to a computer for analysis by the TIP Reporter Software. The TIP
Reporter Software displays measured temperatures versus depth and mapped on cross sections of the shaft. A
straightforward examination of these graphical representations is often sufficient to indicate a shaft with no
integrity issues or one with defects.
The Thermal Profiling Method was developed at the University of South Florida and originally implemented by
Foundation and Geotechnical Engineering LLC (FGE). Research and development are a joint effort of
FGE and PDI. The TIP conforms to ASTM Standard D7949 - Standard Test Methods for Thermal Integrity Profiling of Concrete
1Cotton, D., Ference, M., Piscsalko, G., and Rausche, F., (2010) "Pile Sensing Device and Method of Making and Using the Same" US Patent 8,382,369.
2Mullins, A. G. and Kranc, S. C., (2004), "Method for Testing the Integrity of Concrete Shafts," US Patent 6,783,273.